Authors: Lynette Denny, Rolando Herrero, Carol Levin, Jane J. Kim
Cervical cancer occurs as one of the most common cancers in women living in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) despite the fact that it is largely preventable through preventive screening and the implementation of HPV vaccine programs. The global burden of the disease varies by which income group countries belong to while the regional burden is strongly influenced by cultural and religious practices. Cervical cancer affects relatively young women (the median age at death for women with cervical cancer is 54 years) who often have many children and frequently serve as sole providers. Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of HPV infection and consequently an increased risk for cervical cancer. The main screening methods are cytology-based programs (Pap smears), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and HPV testing, and cost-effectiveness analysis has been performed on all of them. Treatment options involve surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy, depending on the stage at the time of detection.