Childhood Mental and Developmental Disorders
The chapter discusses childhood anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder, autism, and intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder), focusing on interventions in terms of delivery platforms. Risk factors for childhood mental and developmental disorders divide into two types of risk factors: lifelong and age-specific. Significant risk factors influencing the health status of children include (1) the health and well-being of caregivers; (2) the environments in which children participate (both home and school); and (3) peer relationships. The populations of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) tend to have higher proportions of children and adolescents than those of high-income countries (HICs), and population aging is occurring more slowly in LMICs— trends which indicate that childhood mental and developmental disorders will increase in significance in LMICs. Parenting skills training and maternal mental health interventions show the potential to reduce mental and developmental disorders in childhood.