Hernia and Hydrocele
Treatment of groin hernia and hydrocele, two common surgical conditions, including nonsurgical and surgical management, anesthesia considerations, and complications is described in this chapter. From the United Kingdom, Operation Hernia has established treatment centers in 10 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, while in Ghana a local group of surgeons has set up the Ghana Hernia Society to provide comprehensive groin hernia care. Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most cost-effective general surgical procedures performed, but further research is needed to determine cost-effectiveness when the surgery is performed by local practitioners using both low-cost mesh and traditional tissue techniques. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including India and countries in Africa, lymphatic filariasis, a neglected tropical disease, accounts for a significant portion of the total burden of disease, and its treatment is not standardized. LMIC medical care should prioritize inguinal hernia and filarial hydrocele on the surgery agenda at first-level hospitals.