Pre-Hospital and Emergency Care

Authors: Amardeep Thind, Ahmed Zakariah, Charles Mock, Eduardo Romero Hicks, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Renee Hsia

Citation:
Thind, A., Zakariah, A., Mock, C. N., Hicks, E., Mabweijano, J. , et. al. . “Pre-Hospital and Emergency Care”. In: Disease Control Priorities (third edition): Volume 1, Essential Surgery, edited by H. Debas, P. Donkor, A. Gawande, D. T. Jamison, M. Kruk, C. N. Mock. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Thind, A., Zakariah, A., Mock, C. N., Hicks, E., Mabweijano, J. , et. al. . “Pre-Hospital and Emergency Care”. In: Disease Control Priorities (third edition): Volume 1, Essential Surgery, edited by H. Debas, P. Donkor, A. Gawande, D. T. Jamison, M. Kruk, C. N. Mock. Washington, DC: World Bank.
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Abstract:
Life-threatening or limb-threatening conditions requiring immediate care face significant delays in reaching medical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Communicable and maternal conditions, chronic conditions, and injuries (both intentional and unintentional) cause 24.3 million deaths in LMICs and translate into a staggering 1,023 million DALYs (disability-adjusted life years). Prehospital care encompasses first responder care provided by the community—from the scene of injury, home, school, or other location—until the patient arrives at a formal health care facility – and paramedical care such as paid ambulance personnel or fire or police personnel. In most of East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa, commercial ambulances may not be available, and transport options mean private motorized or nonmotorized vehicles. Training of community paramedics and first responders remains a challenge as illustrated by experiences in Iraq and Cambodia. The wide availability of cellular phones has revolutionized both the availability and the cost of communications for prehospital emergency care system.