Pre-Hospital and Emergency Care

Authors: Amardeep Thind, Ahmed Zakariah, Charles Mock, Eduardo Romero Hicks, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Renee Hsia

Introduction:
Disease or illness can strike at any time. If the condition is acute, or if the injury is life-threatening or limbthreatening, immediate care is needed. These timedependent conditions that affect both adults and children may be due to medical, surgical, or obstetric conditions. They may result from acute injuries or illnesses or from exacerbations of chronic disease. 
 
In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), patients with such conditions may face delays of hours or even days before reaching the nearest medical facility or provider. Transportation may be provided by ambulance, but more often it is provided by laypersons using the handiest mode of transport available (Arellano, Mello, and Clark 2010; Khorasani-Zavareh and others 2009; Nguyen and others 2008; Ramanujam and Aschkenasy 2007). Health care before arrival at heath facilities may be provided by trained paramedics or by laypersons; quite often, however, no health care is provided (Bavonratanavech 2003; Khorasani-Zavareh and others 2009; Nguyen and others 2008; Solagberu and others 2009).