Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
Authors: Kelly McQueen, Andrew Ottaway, Florian R. Nuevo , Iain H. Wilson, Richard P. Dutton, Thomas Coonan, Zipporah Gathuya
In the not-so-distant past, the impact of safe anesthesia on surgical outcomes often went unrecognized. Beginning in the 1950s, as surgical techniques advanced, strategies to improve patient safety and surgical outcomes were emphasized; physician anesthesia providers were recognized as essential members of surgical teams in high-income countries (HICs). Most low-income countries (LICs) and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), which have the greatest unmet surgical need, have not been able to apply the anesthesia advances in patient care and monitoring that have proven so successful in HICs. The availability of anesthesia providers is limited in LICs and LMICs, and many lack requisite training and supervision.