Authors: Kiran Thakur, Emiliano Albanese, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Nathalie Jette, Mattias Linde, Martin Prince, Timothy Steiner, Tarun Dua
This chapter addresses headache disorders, epilepsy, and dementia, to review current knowledge of the epidemiology, risk factors, and cost-effective interventions for these neurological conditions, with a focus on interventions that provide meaningful reduction in the burden to the global population, and particular emphasis on applicability to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Not only are these conditions prevalent, but they result in significant disability, poor psychosocial outcomes, and substantial economic costs. For all three of these conditions, pharmacotherapies have advanced considerably in the past two decades, but these options remain limited in LMICs, and the treatment gap for these conditions is substantial. Innovative health care management approaches are required in LMICs because of the lack of specialist care. While progress in attitudes and knowledge about migraine, epilepsy, and dementia can help reduce the treatment gap and enhance psychosocial outcomes for those suffering from these conditions, increased financial investments and legislative changes are ultimately required to improve neurological care in LMICs.