Authors: Lijing Yan, Chaoyun Li, Jie Chen, Rong Luo, Janet Bettger, Yishan Zhu, Valery Feigin, Martin O'Donnell, J. Jaime Miranda, Dong Zhao, Yangfeng Wu


Evidence is presented on the disease burden of stroke, describing the epidemiology, disability, and socioeconomic burdens, by (1) discussing modifiable and other risk factors for stroke; (2) describing primary prevention, treatment, and management of stroke during the acute phase as well as secondary prevention and rehabilitation, with a focus on cost-effective strategies in LMICs, where such evidence exists; and (3) providing recommendations for policy makers and future research directions. Over the past two decades, the incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates of stroke declined in most high-income countries (HICs), but rose in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the absolute number of people annually affected by stroke, living with stroke, and dying from stroke has increased worldwide. While evidence on the cost-effectiveness of specific strategies in LMICs remains limited, prompt attention to, and action on, known factors—the importance of controlling tobacco use, reducing sodium intake, controlling blood pressure, and promoting a healthy diet and physical activity—will contribute to curbing the rising epidemic of stroke in the coming years.


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