Stroke

Authors: Lijing Yan, Chaoyun Li, Jie Chen, Rong Luo, Janet Bettger, Yishan Zhu, Valery Feigin, Martin O'Donnell, J. Jaime Miranda, Dong Zhao, Yangfeng Wu

Abstract:

Evidence is presented on the disease burden of stroke, describing the epidemiology, disability, and socioeconomic burdens, by (1) discussing modifiable and other risk factors for stroke; (2) describing primary prevention, treatment, and management of stroke during the acute phase as well as secondary prevention and rehabilitation, with a focus on cost-effective strategies in LMICs, where such evidence exists; and (3) providing recommendations for policy makers and future research directions. Over the past two decades, the incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates of stroke declined in most high-income countries (HICs), but rose in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the absolute number of people annually affected by stroke, living with stroke, and dying from stroke has increased worldwide. While evidence on the cost-effectiveness of specific strategies in LMICs remains limited, prompt attention to, and action on, known factors—the importance of controlling tobacco use, reducing sodium intake, controlling blood pressure, and promoting a healthy diet and physical activity—will contribute to curbing the rising epidemic of stroke in the coming years.

 

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