Authors: Lijing Yan, Chaoyun Li, Jie Chen, Rong Luo, Janet Bettger, Yishan Zhu, Valery Feigin, Martin O'Donnell, J. Jaime Miranda, Dong Zhao, Yangfeng Wu
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Estimates, in 2012 stroke was the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost globally. In certain low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as China, the disease burden of stroke increased significantly over the past two decades, accounting for the most years of life lost in 2010. This chapter—the first on strokes in the history of Disease Control Priorities editions—presents evidence on the disease burden of strokes, describing the epidemiology, disability, and socioeconomic burdens, and then discusses modifiable and other risk factors for stroke. The majority of the chapter is devoted to describing primary prevention, treatment, and management of stroke during the acute phase as well as secondary prevention of, and rehabilitation after, stroke, with a focus on cost-effective strategies in LMICs, where such evidence exists. The chapter concludes with recommendations for policy makers and future research directions.