Summary of Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions and Policies to Prevent and Treat Cardio-Metabolic Diseases
The results of dozens of high-quality, cost-effectiveness analyses for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, respiratory, and kidney-related conditions and risk factors (CVRD) are categorized—much of it with country-specific data—by (1) and this chapter summarizes the available literature on population-level health and intersectoral policies to address the major risks in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and discussing some methodological issues in these analyses; and (2) assessing and discussing the cost-effectiveness of personal services delivered through various levels of the health system. Many interventions remain available for managing these diseases, which account for a large portion of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally. High-income countries (HICs) and some LMICs have seen dramatic declines in age-adjusted mortality related to these conditions as a result of many clinical and policy-based interventions, some of which have proven cost-effective while others need further evaluation. Clarification remains necessary on the diagnostic approach to targeting a single high-risk factor versus absolute risk, the role of patient compliance, and the potential consequences of large-scale medicalization for public health.