Summary of Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions and Policies to Prevent and Treat Cardio-Metabolic Diseases
The risk factors and disease conditions covered in this volume of Disease Control Priorities constitute the majority of health burden facing middle- and high-income countries (MICs and HICs, respectively) today and are fast approaching a majority of the burden in lower-income countries (LICs). Previous editions of Disease Control Priorities, published in 1993 and in 2006, acknowledged the importance of cardiovascular and related diseases to the future health and economic well-being of populations in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and singled out tobacco taxes and treatment of heart disease with low-cost generics as high-priority, cost-effective interventions. With some exceptions, most of the conclusions about cost-effectiveness were extrapolated from analyses done in HICs (Rodgers and others 2006) and from modeling, due to the paucity of economic analysis of interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related diseases using LMIC data. The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a notable review of cost-effectiveness of NCD interventions, but it was based on a small number of modeled studies from a few regions (WHO 2011).
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