Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Related Disorders

Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Related Disorders

Copyright: Julia Manzerova
  • The burden of cardio-metabolic and respiratory disorders has significantly increased and is devastating to people in low-resource settings.

  • Effective and cost-effective treatments and interventions are available but underused. Evidence from high- and middle-income countries shows that a reduction in deaths is possible through health systems strengthening at the primary care level, particularly when early treatment is administered.  LMICs can draw from these lessons and adopt best practices at the local level.


  • Task shifting and task sharing are among a few possible innovations that could combat cardio-metabolic and respiratory conditions worldwide.  

  • Health systems remain the cornerstone in reducing the burden of cardio-metabolic, respiratory and renal diseases and simple yet effective strategies are available.  Needs include training for health care providers, availabilty of affordable medicine, and improved adherence to prescribed medications.  

About Volume 5

Cardiovascular, respiratory, and related diseases and conditions, share a set of important risk factors. Conditions covered in this volume are closely related, share many risk factors, precursors and sequelae for the others, and therefore have common control measures. They are responsible for a large and growing share of health burden in the world – a burden that is rising especially fast in low- and low-middle income countries that are ill-equipped to prevent them.  This volume summarizes the current knowledge and management strategies for conditions associated with the greatest burden, and for which there are interventions which are both effective and scalable. Our goal is to guide policy makers attempting to address the leading causes of death in the world.  

Stroke Mortality 2010




Age-Standardized Stroke Mortality per 100,000 People, 2010

Source: Feigin, V. L., M. H. Forouzanfar, R. Krishnamurthi, G. A. Mensah, and M. Connor. 2014. “Global and Regional Burden of Stroke during 1990–2010: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.” The Lancet 383 (9913): 245–54.

Physical Activity in Adults


 Hallal, P.C., L.B. Andersen, F.C. Bull, R.Guthold, W. Haskell, and others. 2012. "Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects." The Lancet 380 (9838):247-257.

News and Events

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an important cause of cardiovascular death and disability among children and working-age adults in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). RHD is the consequence of untreated streptococcal pharyngitis, which in susceptible individuals leads to repeated attacks of...
DCP3 editors and authors joined colleagues from around the globe at the fourth annual Global Health Economics Colloquium hosted at the University of California, San Francisco on February 10, 2017. This year's topical focus was the economics of non-communicable diseases, and featured a keynote...
Economic Dimensions of Noncommunicable Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean is a companion volume to Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (DCP3). This volume explores the relationship between and the impact of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on development and economic growth in the...

Volume Editors

Shuchi Anand

Shuchi Anand
Stanford University School of Medicine