Authors: Hellen Gelband, Prabhat Jha, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Cindy Gauvreau , Susan Horton
This overview chapter discusses how cancer control strategies will provide a range of cost-effective interventions, customized to local epidemiological patterns and available funding, and will improve health care for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The burden of disease shows in premature cancer death rates, but worldwide a slow decrease before age 70 has occurred. Essential intervention packages include (1) prevention, (2) screening, (3) diagnosis and treatment, (4) pain control through opioids, and (5) customization for local priority conditions. To calculate costs of these packages, Brazil, India, and Nigeria information creates a range from US$1.4 billion to US$13.8 billion. Cost-effectiveness determinations focused on treatments effective in high-income countries, noting that for LMICs the best options likely will result from HPV vaccination and screening for early detection of breast and cervical cancers. Scaling up means quick implementation of tobacco taxes and access to opioids and longer timeframes for increasing surgical capacity and trained personnel and expanded chemotherapy and facilities to improve early-stage diagnosis and treatment.