Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Febrile Illness in Children

Authors: Joseph Babigumira, Hellen Gelband, Louis P. Garrison, Jr.


Fever is a common presenting complaint of ill children all over the world. Until recently in Sub-Saharan Africa, fever was synonymous with a presumed diagnosis of malaria. However, malaria is not the only common cause of fever or serious febrile illness in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the widespread success of malaria control has reduced the region’s share of the febrile illness burden. In 2008, 16 percent of the 4.2 million child deaths in this region were attributed to malaria, 18 percent to pneumonia, and 19 percent to diarrhea (Black and others 2010).