Relationships Among Risk Factors and the Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, and Chronic Lung Disease

Authors: Ajay Vamadevan, David Watkins, Dorairaj Prabhakaran


This chapter describes recent trends in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular, respiratory, and related disorders (CVRDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the specific conditions (including ischemic heart disease [IHD], structural heart disease, heart failure, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and chronic lung disease) and the associated risk factors, then reviews evidence regarding the complex interrelationships between specific risk factors, their early- and late-life determinants, and their corresponding influence on CVRD risk later in life, before presenting steps for addressing CVRD risk factors and for reducing preventable deaths within a socioecological framework. CVRDs increasingly contribute to poor health in LMICs, the epidemic driven by population growth and aging in combination with increasing prevalence of risk factors and inadequate clinical management. Health systems in LMICs, which account for most of the CVRD burden globally, remain ill equipped to address this challenge and will require additional investments to strengthen access to evidence-based prevention and treatment, including a reorientation of public policy to improve population health and well-being.