Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Syphilis

Authors: Grace John-Stewart, Rosanna Peeling, Carol Levin, Patricia Garcia , David Mabey, John Kinuthia

Introduction:
The past decade has yielded enormous progress in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (UNAIDS 2015). Interventions that decrease mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from more than 30 percent to 1 percent have been identified. Decentralized point-of-care (POC) approaches for detecting maternal HIV and immediate provision of comprehensive antiretroviral treatment (ART) have resulted in rapid decreases in the number of HIV-infected infants. Indeed, PMTCT has been credited with driving observed decreases in HIV incidence overall.