Interventions to Prevent Injuries and Reduce Environmental and Occupational Hazards: A Review of Economic Evaluations from Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Authors: David Watkins, Nazila Dabestani, Rachel Nugent, Carol Levin

Introduction:

Collectively, unintentional injuries and interpersonal violence accounted for at least 8 percent of deaths and 9 percent of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in 2012 (WHO 2016). Diseases related to air pollution and inadequate water and sanitation measures accounted for 15 percent of attributable deaths and 10 percent of attributable DALYs in LMICs in 2013 (IHME 2015). Spurred by Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7, steady progress has been made on water- and sanitation-related indicators, although many countries have not yet reached target levels of coverage (Luh and Bartram 2016), not to mention the newer targets for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 (UN 2016). At the same time, health losses from road traffic injuries, interpersonal violence, and outdoor air pollution continue to rise (WHO 2015).