Authors: Fabrizio Tediosi, Christian Lengeler, Marcia Castro, Rima Shretta, Carol Levin, Tim Wells, Marcel Tanner
This chapter reviews the strategies for malaria control, describing the relevance of social and environmental determinants, as well as the health system factors that deliver effective coverage of malaria interventions. Millennium Development Goals and Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership’s first Global Malaria Action Plan (GMAP) led to a renewed commitment to the fight against malaria and to a substantial increase in resources. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vector control, which includes testing, treatment, and surveillance. Environmental determinants—both natural and human environments—play a significant part in designing an effective program, which should address both supply-side and demand-side challenges, especially in weak health systems. New agents for treatment and prevention include (1) molecules that kill blood-stage parasites, (2) medicines that prevent relapses, (3) blockers of transmission, and (4) long-term chemoprevention. An essential requirement for effective resistance management is to speed up the development of new active insecticidal ingredients as well as alternative vector control approaches.