Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment as Prevention for HIV

Authors: Charles Holmes, Timothy Hallett, Rochelle Walensky, Till Bärnighausen, Yogan Pillay, Myron Cohen

Introduction:

The beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on individual health are well established, and ART is widely used to reduce the morbidity and mortality due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHO 2016). Recent evidence has strengthened the case for initiating ART as early in the disease stage as possible (Danel and others 2015; INSIGHT START Study Group 2015). Similarly, using ART to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV is supported with conclusive evidence and has been adopted into clinical policies worldwide, as discussed in chapter 6 of this volume (John-Stewart and others 2017).