Authors: Barry R. Bloom, Rifat Atun, Ted Cohen, Christopher Dye, Hamish Fraser, Gabriela Gomez, Gwen Knight, Megan Murray, Edward Nardell, Eric Rubin, Anna Vassall, Grigory Volchenkov, Richard White, Douglas Wilson, Prashant Yadav, Joshua Salomon


Despite 90 years of vaccination and 60 years of chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) remains the world’s leading cause of death from an infectious agent, exceeding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) for the first time (WHO 2016a, 2015b). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are about 10.4 million new cases and 1.8 million deaths from TB each year. One-third of these new cases (about 3 million) remain unknown to the health system, and many are not receiving proper treatment.